Fishing has been around since ancient times when humans would fish for food they would use peices of bones as hooks and vines as line. Sport fishing didn't start till the late 15th century. Fishing techniques include using your hand, spearfishing, netting, angling, and trapping. My favorite of these is angling because I think it is the most fun. Angling is fishing with a hook, line, rod and reel.
In the past fishers would kill fish even if they weren't going to eat them. Now people catch and release their fish. The reason they release may be that they are not edible or they are not size. When a fish is not size it means that a fish is either bigger or smaller than regulation. Also specific fish have seasons that you can keep your fish.
While fishing you will want to learn about the species of fish. Also you will want to learn about the regulations of the fish. Also learn about what the fish eats and when the fish migrates and you want to learn about fish's habitats. When fishing I would use either artifical baits (lures) or live bait. Those are the best for catching big fish.
Fishing reels is one of the most important things for fishing some of the types of fishing reels are bait casters, spinners, and conventionals. My favorite are spinner because they are easy to use. Conventionals are good for bigger fish because normally they are big and hold a lot of line. Bait casters are my least favorite but they are still fun to use.