The RMS (Royal Mail Ship) Titanic was one of the biggest, fastest boats of its time, at 52,000 tons and 882 feet it could go at a speed of 23 knots. It was not only designed to be efficient at its job but to also provide extreme luxury for its high paying passengers. The boat sank on its maiden voyage which began April 12th, 1912 when they left from Southampton to reach New York. 1,503 passengers and crew were killed by this tragedy, leaving only 703 alive.
It was captained by 62 year old veteran captain Edward John Smith, the "Millionaire's captain" who was the most trusted captain of White Starline and one of the most renown in the world. During the journey Smith went nearly full speed which was normal for the time and he even changed course to avoid ice but that wouldn't be enough to save masterful captain.
Titanic began to sink at 11:40 PM on April 14, 1912 and finally sunk at 2:20 AM the next day in the North Atlantic Ocean near the Labrador currents. This year was also perfect conditions as it was especially cool allowing an iceberg to stay solid while the currents brought it onto a collision course with the "Unsinkable Ship". Many myths about Titanic tell how it hit the iceberg straight on when it really scraped a 300 foot gash in the side when they turned to avoid it.
Among other important factors were the fact that lower quality rivets were used and they were put on without any equipment, by hand, this may have weakened the ship's hull structure and caused a different reaction upon impact with the iceberg. Decisions were made before Titanic was made to lower bulkheads for the Grand Staircase and remove some lifeboats so that it looked less cluttered on the top of the ship, this allowed the water that entered through the cut in the hull to go around to more parts of the ship and directly lowered the amount of people who were able to get into boats and it is the reason for Titanic crew claiming women and children only.
That night at sea it was a moonless night and a mirage raised the level of the horizon blocking the light of the stars, there was also a fire beforehand, failed flares and SOS lights, and failed wireless contact to the nearest ship's wireless operator that could have saved Titanic which was The Californian. Lookouts were looking for icebergs to block any light of stars so that they could give a warning ahead of time and the fire on Titanic broke out before it left port which may have distracted the crew's attention away from some of the more obvious flaws with Titanic. While Titanic was actively sinking it became chaotic on the deck because there was no established emergency protocol, the crew fired off flares at random intervals signaling no distress and also couldn't make contact with the Californian using a Morse code lamp.
These events are all thought to have had an effect on the Titanic sinking faster, loss of life, and failure to contact closer ships but the world has yet to find a definitive answer to why she sank.